Schematic representation of molecular biology of early olfactory learning based on the data by Yuan et al. /Name /F15 << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] endobj /P 17 0 R Download PDFs Export citations. Molecular Biology of Short- and Long-Term Memory Storage What are the molecular mechanisms whereby short-term memory is established, and how is it converted to long-term … endobj H��W�n��}�G,�H��n^�Qk��I�v`O,�y����r‹d�קN��X� 8}��:uN�ϛ�Wo�ux�y�J|��:�?�LԵM��^'I�+Zp� The perceived pattern results from the integration of information transmitted by a set of neurons. /Count 3 << /Border [ 0 0 0 ] These are six key steps in the molecular biological delineation of short-term memory and its conversion to long-term memory for both implicit (procedural) and explicit (declarative) memory. >> 0 Altmetric. This mechanism is also involved in physiological memory … /Resources 8 0 R endobj /H /I molecular biology of memory storage Todd Charlton Sacktor The Robert F. Furchgott Center for Neural and Behavioral Science, Departments of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neurology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA Abstract: How memories persist is a fundamental neurobiological question. /ViewerPreferences << Most of our knowledge of the world and most of our skills are not innate but learned. 16 0 obj /Type /Annot Procedural memory. These studies involve the use of a wide range of modern techniques in molecular biology, genomics, proteomics, imaging and electrophysiology. The analysis of the contributions to synaptic plasticity and memory of cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB has recruited the efforts of many laboratories all over the world. Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: The Persistence of Memory. /S /URI ;UGe9V]o9@^ht)oF5_T?L+FPkdorrMd6rpWZ!s8k-4hA9U[8V!dbHG!0memZ]8&-E0><15X"1__:$#opb\(; W8B;8gpCHZYI[O6Il"kOJ%jV-KYIKH@*H%G6NJN,]^#j54'cOjbnTU@#m.Hlf, F6=[crNB7p'WGa9l=hdc`SF(! In recent years, our understanding of the cellular architecture supporting long-term memory traces has also substantially improved. ISBN 9780125643504, 9780323141505 /PageLayout /SinglePage /Height 306 ;UGe9V]o9@^ht)oF5_T?L+FPkdorrMd6rpWZ!s8k-4hA9U[8V!dbHG!0memZ]8&-E0><15X"1__:$#opb\(; ?ZCL*4DDBRl9XC^3a>77Ms+VkO40%?%=aiZ=?k_lbp"^;6g`J>6rk0#V;Ld#9Y%uojU7>nDUAfFo5d@gU[7i;Itr;.nE?mVLMM."1mc$mn\>_BIq49fJOOj'>?05EV-pJ:K288l-1]b\;(7/jE$"#OCkFIXdprA5P#``8"kMfV-\=L#Ig=$62=oG!d;6=8rn>*1*3og,oMI7H"B'65XI*U^eTc&mp)2_X!D`TW*fA,5RMH&nPrK]Kj8"m;33]c)8if=R=KIbDe\0QLup?kdGEFplstMd3RSE1UP`E"-KAI"6U0r6NQd5-&k]KVDh>^6,g_fETL4:6foie@@$9S\K?20A4%&X\=2b1pl?/R\.;i2_GAFPF"f*,:1o3JPFM.?,U&AT:JB'1)btk;54sZKZtp9Dgb3^?YPJT<6ZchokXLET3*O"_b6)ERJ";TkkTp/'?fM8Uhi63dFZ=(2f9NWN]u1:tAYEJ8@$fP;PbZFk2-Z-[[=o8lk"f\%Zi$Q=7/F:PEM%gJko>A\GFF*/clCM[aIR'Q-Io*!%&(_N"OfJ212UY\?`=XcogTiZ&Gf$FH"MOpNTs8')"3+HAG/n4qaTYc`OsNaUot-Gf[`f&&mA23ZoV0H&K0/e%`:)f>J^6d@OKoYDe7RI0NhH&qVN-ZR:cEW^MC[,(="::EcG>%#lb2@>D;@:-9?pB3Nr/Wh$htY=2J]nF'O9:RK&rRNb/N\,#BSN^t^5!e,@?1b-\ZMSUct:hd=d3)+SBC7:\3FM?lt@d7d+u5,Jk%5O"=f!6q)0AQ(.195M/60?+Z!&r((Ag*`jN0@k]M%Uq3CfMLZ+.?*M%hkI\QtQ"V=SKJAa+Us+mh465Gk3[lIns+>2FXTKm$[rTaamBEC=adr7lNg3JIbPpVTSELIMC`pdnJfeYWDXQgV$_=ks*_?R^"RTu5E9Um54X7)UIjdQl",Jp;/'@@3B9_DquL%EMKkg^O)p9?7Q:F-kNp&Th:%VlKU\nXV'&6d/i.Aod&]2/U$H4+.rXS3\j`m$.Su6>eNoik^Uqe:aOTKbq(bhn]>#h!P927EK"IWtD7!.HUsTiuXG[.Wa=Nc,B,7psXfja@*)::BhsUF%AT!hlQHGnGT?aXmkdqWeUM(M>:)+B@*h(@S2O"/.A"_nB46/BVqc*QiDcaS?\JM_mAu,'2'BQ3CYlKqJ;;\/qBY/^(L,WC]'XFH3cb1Bqn1+E+>)$`*5WVmh?)dQDD3n#d#T##/X'0PWJ4*0B8LU.Usd.$6Uc-]L;"ptj=TT"eAopdgL[9U89p4h!U,D9^)gFr?>]:TXPGqoB\A5ogCe)`7cs.ULk$lM58gYk#Y_&Bks/AI:GthqVTscFn2*j]V?$c.Kon)IcBq'foq/ck'[dM:MH`YI))JtI3nF?2IjStWNCmX]c[2*,Pc`;k"C6^Ie<=,`=a^"Df-t:_R?HLGGE6/pTbJS,'=)7.QIoTh"O#:FqXZ>#hkQ@kT+3kUb.CA]K4`Den*Y\E^^'"`T?Ym;chjo_n[!^(k478TH8YRh'XXs@;)j/QOZPqND#DMn$*Qt\hr%%=*f#S8^;X\&*/i/Yl\U:VOR8rR=m%gemM@NnnLc[&I:M"%Q3-7TFr\-VKKi[pCo!>qk_^P+Zpc:AFk9""?VE%9"%hL5$qk&lRXUN\Lhuc/%XPn4gQK54\&8>=q_u>']%';n!sZbrK)MZ>G*Yc1b!Kgd>s(C$%;?f0Xt8"==p&YFX_gA]-4OBR`S%GrZInE>cMS)T`&]bO`eZGbH=?.Z1T'`h61ZU2%;37rTBtoC`n1l*_ga!kU1Plf+PnSOLmRa-#)t/!6F8.FEBr#bAGI,31H,bCT^e?h.XutV>/)`RCQbU;j;$+X/&NQSc&r>3PI5"buGM#R%!a)gCO%BFXL!)Rf(%i9s&tNVBB-#7:CD8`g4&nJ>iCAeihlB,XUu'b0p2AlsSj@@J;hu>iIJ_2fmhA=]ebQ\`sf#"!P^M.FGerGW!el'.2=;T5PPe3k[VZ_W)d7PmpR\d6@"1T[NFK5%6k\6^]MJUI)c[WG\uak0J_&l[UYV0p"fE3@!g-8$FY3^'W[)H3_\T]QIdHO1H56[bKect^Ror1jqkc.bTQ+$;#R-[1Sc)U0gf[!DB7$^`_lA3qU,GGdcUG"]Y4k^&;Z;.C3db\[&Fjo>K6AgNc->b?e6+r$U`,eNkLju"G-jtRgPIqJ)Q%,e3UY#eg5#<95k\War##g%f'i"fbPK*8tc*R_G"Kf2T%aKLu>gM@C-0J87.=)b`A,]f5M5fINLEIf.LtdB-9@A>>-(==g_uaqk.AR?$_t7d[FInP>;pg",f3>AmYSk0h$FK_XHT&QqoK'9*%(X,^mDTsE^$15XFhjcuPfA6n3`c7PJF'$C+FMsd+XXA9;6Kj\%]1sZP_N$efTC1c*CYBR/h%l5k+,JiHJKOB)f4VDK]=3C-0k//sW_Eg#lEG>Dt2i6["*$%\"JI-\8'WS])n+g&9f%a)-(HAM8<1iqC:A1*ZIK'%X_fFAh:;fll),c]uDLi-Rq01m^Y.F)(c^?\7\?u.]Z/GVQ`oDc(#e08(NGq[++=D9RdNND<3/@Vlg04@):?3OBF^j`#5LeK=#(8!r>$/3G_sVX682la.C3%6TtN2U\$\!\Ed?35ZI-k6OKs70UBrj2a-maBqFccQ$e_"j4;f*Mq&gi!mQ,Qf7V2+8A2lAc&Lgsg3Dto?2\qdH2-]m65iqY#Oa+g:b+bV+_KfqL>+XNGr_$%+_Jp.+0/GPYjA1-,JSo>57lSMQba"@6[UcL,c:i7/I4c*h]5OeOjK9JHF6dcHH@jN_&6PA_/*_-?2%f)!N*.n="Eb_''[3TNDL$Z;oLm9"$G:$_Mo^gWqI0jET%gV6qd2pK%if'*Q6ZWW@@Q0m0E_-I+0J)uZlL2#$i[%#L6Pkq$QkjH_Y`8i>&"EnB(H9^5TFnVeCjaB^f9:D/dbm+l0?iV&j1UJNeudm24fGmh^-kBa.n![J+[#4O**E%!k'#6\)\il;4o5us/fA/Bp=G"f5H&@gPC]3;gb]>AB]Z0%-'Ggi:qbD*2i(e2B>St[Vfh7I$Q45!$1754jK9i"Fqr$rV22rC.Go/UV%t:dg2LbN??Ad@"l$8r&XrQnRA;l2Zh@l=cV3"E.XWEnEA-M&lHs6Lc%R[k^l5]UdWr)bd.<7.7X&30XY@VdnU#:%W*M=808D*&,?h)E7Nm!HTjfJn'5Eh;R]:Jcj3XK!k\c((RKm.\7I\eR6jMT(-lruh[\kf\6Tm[KHam?.=]ms?ckt$%A,+=q*LC!Ijbm0NL8_sO=&=roK%d&Aa8S59M,kb80I`uCV'NrmI!I]Qj8SWHXbZl^,32akLIXfReBaE2CFdW!o'%;+nD?ID%MGu*A'le4Ro#fi%W)gC[WoUg$WNR]TK8rS4ObFsAhTlo+s1_M(:tkZ9AP4E0Z5lW&kcullZN[@Y[lQ8"J0o/+@jS)em@*9fsc]$J.sC46^V$)@N:pupYAS$0%qg,g@iAP^h[k`"hE?L,+\co7CMB-hAC8on6uAq#cKE2RUX'i;6Z0pkNS0mia(]:==dSr+ebc6YkVe5%Ro:k:Yo[P!Tb9GQgro%GF$qUG;e6E@,7O/c(emlN9.!#5sl0`S^1hik+O9]\!lf"Ic3BL"7$,1c^/$=MCPR,V%G^=8<>i4+c(TK(V0Y,;;DTXEQB@b&8&V0.>QjP&NL5#AS#Y.eS^lTXB>(W`B]UL^'W9M^a^Y7eLo;4mjnZ]j/^%Srra#Kf5]WX,+^6/7kR8PLaIeoc!*j4g4"3,EgqAkA@mJV6r\8q(QfrraU'Ji=,78N54-XP:6$V>f%hku^_)bY:*+jDg9'Qan7@7K=QFC/oaW-@:'^ugQO#>s=Alfb2H0^@oX.amG*#nbr*lXB=g?7(5Bf@^+ub,[B)TnJ/2h=!3u;2%TbS+2L]7Dt@C(Xh;>G#e1TWR]gdHaN-[Tf;K#6$M8>PmjrS9ZUHnJK+'Bm[dLi,Ej`m=)dKl$hFFYX-VWY,B(d]jLdSQ#!!>e:c7\6qU,>b`\317m7[jD6EH]IE@Xn@"'sG%9sCCcRZV+^Ys=&YVe\O,pDq,)Ts)B]:G"Y9.RibsC*&q_V(5-:M2@+C;_QNdHA)+M]6"4\U\O>jMG62>"Js8'$KbA@HRVP>qd+dge7H$iJGm\9J:3_GNPM2pZn:!)>lRf#$+$OL0b'-<7a&GJ@qmrfp2IWkRMKh5T"XV25?Bf$V_)'mM6nIhO&LSRC$f=p4'Ws.P+!O!:D(T"chAY]4G)ST?53pCP2d0CWh1XoGWqG:((H6UOd31o`>5YW=R8uB1P?7E9V4Qla(%W-N:.Ep/UebbKOMZk8l\i=W);:t-l_/\5LE7Bdip_eIXO"/LQC1qSt&E;3-h=o&<4uY8S2:,lBW^JU@FHU!$;251VKRK9)B6SVH/HKW[Od;&6NoM/@'l8LY`bJXY6(n$.n8HC?mVRijgnKS2hP7f(*5oBnY3lo>\Bmc(0>=;Ts:$acD`aYt;#0,DHA&A2Xu,R4rR4-&QM;mB_8,=4p/OpR4./GmSO^Ms4,sbp#s6m9oa)F[Vad-H,d:0gH=MaB5HmmD;-uBh>I_.pZ:`,:*l0)Wr&Yk90)2^i(DpsY&6hj?+Geig@'TDh?tAn[2"Q/3o:7X%E?;11lQBT!mYlVj<23Zhnh03:YAae*HrFltiLra\3>=DGVe"XmYn&/E(EC4dVd/m;ZrD:Uf*0gQG(;n!U"YlPe8YT!&00,87f43TRG4L;abPhtDo%qpL_O:na`)h"f=m)7rq#4$J,JbR(/X6Y=Nk-#B?0PTR\jAEE5aI[#dA;uFFH"f"Fe>K_Q]fO9MhBk>mnIg`5fQ[4T:Xh*J(misq?5Yqgd@31_T^G&L/6[*@E)M_os8tn@q#(]\-8u(rDXH*V8cju@[DaMJhQJZtDV2N>'[S4mclFjM1DP?7$4to[A0^q9Z0ZC/=6$CV8`%Ir9CV,oYH_RF:KI*h`PAWnNXUG]DVJ!(]N3-'@Y^X-H$Mfh"+M@*j"6(k89`!A5BFmPF@d`LZnXi5!+R^#Y?t,aP3TC(c@5R?62qJra*.6XhNOZrS/O#JGb[*aiB5mG!Ad]=q4CO"o_15:[0J8g2dbr^6B"$m`Pa^m,"LO.`WZ`i/hl_mk6T:9iMAFaSZB9WUj`qFoZ]S%Dj_sp[YjY"o,9AmuXKC&,kg>X3HlA$tW5s"*L=:-4mK/Ij7FB[A`3u$r>(AUhVa@AW9C&+7I*pJ-,^V@C*^"_>Y*5]W#8oHO+>c;\;PENPsTe64.=q^p):"snTRDhBZ%PD(+tU35e/Wn6JTi/oSbfUU!KJ8i-i^/e,B'#1;AB=JJ:fc?S"K1:/g!sAEYd[?*#DkZ*QLs((@VV&]nhp(0LWs]bmgbYk]X_VA>;YN[rknF_UjV(#+XeSQ;,TeHAIOsqQZeE%9$f8E5[)+`F4H9=f%W(5u4paehe$Vk+JEMB"Jp@Abcuj.?r^@=OeXca$*T6j'5:"m02P)a&B@MHfN;bL/h?_t-`JBbsSN)3@?_)cs#[cI#NI7C0:TNbomG\;E\S3"Aqe9-+=\0scZk*_(b6aL.VOKSO8n,35)STf;VI1`K4os*E(i4GW8M2Z6*0IYt@Gkda$RLI>ggc@SU9`HU/k!U>Q+4D6ek8\up_J9DKdW;CKK/k_YT(lj`-7gWM$.B,f%=Z%pG2X*M_r7H:5@l8LMJ&%c/N-Gm4/\=fb3]ce(jTN[2iFHS[I->q0tG8\XUoL=rPt:;(0>*dj)4sb^m1"s9XVb7/XT@`%;m?I`FZIe-2]9bdY9B3JSjf$SQX++3cpIO?Z'7LLbi/)PW2O_u>)!1*p,N774?GbnE6u+3QDjQT'mDeY@GqqOb02,m%d$5$`J)IjAh)fG2Q><9^$.4EZ6hQ2fF%kd0mcG7g,Jd$aF\o7r]:F=19K5_MT#2gY!V#L;%'OCaQaOTgUu0eYNX5>J`d-;G\?F@Q;(bMVPY],?P2j:]h&iJ-Z/M?!=L-U2QBdEe_=DQ!1?BWJB@(b::$1WPij_bP!Eo18?6M[rIQC4.Vn+)]GT6QUeH:`'N7]1/p[NmUgLW&\ke!HBX/)73F6=[crNB7p'WGa9l=hdc`SF(!*s!1<=e-J]795@;T.K]E.H$S_6'5lYB93#-P(ML6Tg2$B_?Wh(N_$Ss)D?nVl$-H`L//SpMk/ZaYqBpXAd`/FSi10P3lEs%pgo2VEO8EH^cAj]NU_rKa'c7mR@Q]:FEMY^k71:2P&BL!pJ>hN/YiNCD]m)F--L-5bd6)gn)'du.]l0o-a%JRMIV5,WjA1bnekQ1X\Q='Xt_-JqFZBj4Kp[.5/b,+2t^254VY,<4`R9:2kjN&.^O4O(1OC^Gk.fbuTG/X?;%O2ME6>XNHnCV3F@,ST%$fK#89g6!U*F86DS4QS#14mXN@1:E!"W@3X-ccOT3T]Ig/57L%80jKOg-:fusL(TWd*ZHYRJI5.%CYtlm.^Q3lbBR-2*8/J>Y>.[=0k15ds&$,@dCZBCVmAoIRO$eg-2n@9Pe0lqb$U?;L-+n>Qf5%&T@_(JG,mq:jF4&3WeU!6>;%pn>Hadp./hm=`!R#Xf0Kf0p2j/BDPLt5XVPb!_h;0uT-[QjbYSb#"1@RYV6`.sfcpdi%YU+!?"`'9F][^g.0aU_p-Q9EV0LHA0=Tnc4mnpH_Q"&kPZ)bZ(Vo[d27=SsJCQM'=rRG")Nd-)rd%s@cbd%G`3(XMlG1t]?k^@-!B6/c5kqQr4G3kt%lHNeL:VeuIbj4I1[,S=6eT!-&9,*h&YiP,0fj,p#M'R"Ru*U9%F)B:PN:X?6rK0!5ph;YQn]#2#2N%(JqO%@+hXD)d+sk2b8%rRGAX[\*ph8;h3?!_k'LSR>(/g*(pchMV-uQRL2_a!6fW51;lf]K`Td,Jrb?4Z=nPIPaDsi&kV;q`;V,qXZ&MOgbWQl5e:oQ[at&3p+pBpA'^s!R1A`9,'0?Onq_at+l]Gg7c!UL;LJ-9)?1:,$t+P$fU;X88J*g=3[&W^,Pu1^R&>:r.MR?d4Y,KdVK&F&f>e0[jl*kuC.`9NS&S[=igtHiEAAD"L7sd,uW"[XV3SA;35etZM\Nki`/%%([Cmo,7#j/7;kGfo-!m27#KV+OE[CBHJkMJ+Kt4]iV's%OhXjI&)h(CRrFlqBJT!F%dEkcJs#Fb&,55qSuJLnaGjHmNfnh',C@p:UT*=:*E1$EBXc'KG2rd(;_rGOErrk2g@RB?l&.IRr\Z9c;AqmR)lnlLZ0ihY0=El;'%;e[^'jr]N3MVYqG'GI@>jgfS6(_9!smN*hcg[Dp(;C6`707WD;4nQiKA9[%jt0[3)u&q*["YahbU&C77Jn&q*(AmONlR:ntYaC).AUo8KL[;(f&$`fmg[u0SA2A%@7Bf"qOk<>C66GuD?p1HH]Q/&e0CA2iM=e.7Cm,0*N>o`bSASUNVirs9lPd??_pX3kqZ'4Ob3BD&_hV4*V#/\kd@!g7kC1(^oE0F06\p$am9PMjTn@GTD=d(9H>=0%)YrIM\12'4KfIpls@>c,=PMGR(,=pVTJ#Ud*p1e:``e,`K_=^c\Lh`Zf[Qs$GuAA/cUKg/"B&S==/ojBs9@ILch[:Eo3mZ8Q7;5]`\p+&n:`Ya!5t>=%dI2*0W"?kjP5*aWmR?%1NCi_Gr>:7^Y/nU:E;>*`AqL6L+l^saI-%b1\QpcSFR("8[9d=;Hhhm#Y"@TD-Z=[]6I'$X'&AljKieQ*gN)"Jc(MbJ3ZLu7H,;4ogB/^@aG6c)A.s(2--?tFH*rS=V]4C!$$33(LqrS63G$]dpAJdB;WGt](:Aj@3(@LP7/l(E\@g=7ej"`QO>JEkS`eY;V:HFr#.foM9g!,IBNRD[,Ff;B7@iQ#p2MU(q-=2$r]'+-8k;1*XZQN:XuU\]L#@C=qZ]eNW>lpptJZ$sT8@je'JNr/q6p8AS&q`QB4g4iiGGGUfjnE%Q=3#Ef5%W40q-A4fq6>X\/]sY3!l=P#*kX#cXH[G5efb@V^u];iVog2^iB>lrRiYZ:lFR+@2>Y;oX7.PPpB-#QE^0'^p6Q:1oh6F*&Oe>Z-OUm_o"gD8QLP\Id`&q"6aW@"f'BE&l$i6kh1$^Q0;jW[niLsPHDn);ltV:C:#H>9cRbG$8E:8(Gl#.NpT$46V1Qat[5Kmu:2*Q8d%'@tpi\cr4M>VN:4C!sU]:cb::s*Jm$gJ)Q*%q@Tk?((AXrBZHDj3ARP(i,=C24u@I=B.HpW`'&,0sXpla2Ka`NVE*Mi_,A;s`=Qn4;5S;%kIu=72sKK>-Zl22+a4YUm^h[UJ^f0it4o=e&ogco*$JQ,ahjlcjt*H;3WX(H]rho;RpjCUn=T^6As?KIYf*$ZR!fa0(/-,*"F?l%*dI1JZe:ni.dAX8aO2A@",Kb=qL_\_FK,%=Y-F$gtFReGWY)q_#,Ap2#!YhpDK^)Z_d>2>M"9Bbbks1Rus/sZu,e^`+Xd&hOQ*f$0[n%_4,?/mJ%E`1H`esq@s7W/N6IAe9Kb?0fW>jOE%X]W$Eh-ZBc]YfLW$h)"VEtLf(?#\E5KXOFmeCM`7,J2_k')H#k=o3Rtg7V2IQ/R]k0_J]Qu/^tl"'G1BlZ)3f@13ir*d`j;OK!Yn9i)H(pO-<>[tbW.4a9k:`=_[b]tr?+&Vg5Y;CDSpLY/o1R6-&g4nLMBhl6#pf1SSSa$C?q8uY&GqWu1i]b2uS`FkFJVCQVG^QDHSpaZ'?W8lTdSQI+#XYOLip?$T*L_i"Qse18X:_>KkLA(3%*;?^-f'lU=[Cq!l)1\%>oPH/X$0_7,:^9L-uK"O>Gk?d]mVK!1piR&H0:>""?d,Gg9/4=W%6Xn5*L(1oKJdh7fOp8Rn3!\)d*V`lKG5n=%80M>gHdQg$WNL[B[k)PGT(g&9OR_1O`0-ULu*%PG@G=1rEpApU-VD$5PptSTeA-7SG=GCWmsAc7LGP02N9%R-ZbFg8V%nb=j0riL36(Gm*h81f:/X.d?/k21k#^AR8iKFBR.Qn;ppXk2NtN$&).,%7@(&J;Uh$pk*K1r/BMP:A%1Big5rL+*#"Ecf*#,SQ^YR7tXHd(--Cd&P6[fhMQ%G/t(o/:^O@b2[C?iu@OW2c+#Rh`bBO-H!iOhA1XGG&Ir0Fs-$^SmEe[YPX\++8$AX1Fnpko^T[G%6c>M5$d[-Nqf(`[MR6MQDXGE#2-Etl+UA"$("elpumm5NV@V7s0!B=bTFWh,tC(OXhMN0erD-D\[.PlbO2aBH#RY_&G+D2N'R:hcl?G![L9?="^[:=`1OePK@LTA+>DU5"=\e52)fOq7K$A^6i7ZTq;cn@o\'I(Xgb\.]VUi@O%WCG//-g-sh=Af=+D)>4&N=9\QkOQEN/]pNfg@WcsVp.!*8c,#>=7"-b>;Sjo*6CkBR*s0;.OmlV].hJ*h]bBJCbM_.Lh5M25W(!pI[oC/"=7+7n:KnPGA[E`g@5&lB2doq.\9pB[.JF'9q+@mNLW6gTDpTXJ<6Fg+PkdUfl(@S2Gi#!;+_7VY@?QS^hAW/q]STN%7*;LQKrB,+/gGj_]%4e=*?Ccg$L&hAXU3'"_Je4m@tcYD,7Fd+ZP3K#*W8AA5:9*tt2B:64&`80e=p2jH71mS.!-G1mRcm+]X'?PjGu_8Z3POpd%Yj$nKYYHqZ>Z/#nAMuP"+QV`0i]T[MPV)PB"+mJ@^2j*AG%F-sk>"p^8#2"'tPid;k4AhlGId@N\/L19,SQ%FcE2A+bhs'=2=c-BY,hbTM9?2FXWJU)Rn>9Me)G'Yk;'hRK'$Z\38$Kn_Y7!jN`MDJQs]MEY(>?NBs@>Vj!$?RuBLA&t$im.VAkgSiW1ml[ksQ*_419%8I*eX;S9sC8Z-hN32?1K)c>cNM)&IkZ'+Zc;$0BN?^$RMb?[;@TQ\puWi5^9a5q8Aej"O-WGLgY:q_Lk1"gQL!``/9a%dQ+_6WcAfOET2jgi2[RX=j@@_fl9/OFRd]$7ME4^c6q/*&db6.c))Wm>sCh!]k'XE)arfRPT#^i:5j?cot"[ULW^H7=TL+L'kihmKRYYU+s]E4&/EI)&HR+u1l3#]#$s]r0/]\p!Z.:k<9)JZ2RI5"6"X=2q^.5^a@aY$>rU?bh;,*JOgD979^#P7l:lhR@!N->S#5=3?)srX?R.KZ;Mf9hdJN%+'+ZM-;EMM)%Z$G0HEIC2L4U=$ek>E6#eG4)!qO^_4N9'jue%W@_Prh!XIK6e@6Gke:Uo?3ari+.[D]=-aXa"G`K@,f+@a>_sE>Z%bDZK%WG"K'J4>_&26m(0BN'B!J[_].?j\+9Me_SbhlWF#l"aOB3]+37$!t$1#WZOr68k^GFDXihn9PT54&_YZ@=t"$0El6U!DpEK'j&5EdB>o?U`Jstiqd==)oMKG8T>'Y6\#hL:$=*1i)>7Cq$"WJVj;t-,V\-!Y$Y;u]YOK._`6`:[*I=p4JZaqAX/`n=1XIFCj8uf@"D7O/-PXtZ.kWr:XGq(l.[,_d]gm@#m."L,cIiKFM$;G@7u-dYOS?+Mr]jBo+SFo;:A3f.[G:#n!3S3c$/&KMR]c-hN%f58A5sHW]F[AFhDX*E@n0"sm,[qCINTmJ3P[MP^cMIA&IK"j@0JSgmRZguC.,3n[#B6M9kLgMneYT#d/siRG_R&m;G/G6C8o+ghTtK(qg*VO4`:\L_]Cq_\,U];`[/_$\FD`NMeg6l9:lK,gBU&-H'hOgY@O^e8F`!]G]f@g0Gr)^eV7k/kYk'&>'IURbd,C?+:@o[8G/S/.YY'H#A(ab$rIJT+03hkYSQ&&-3-NnD@"dHKC8^ghUR-7(%^QEi&)=&F>6d%mo=A['Tta7Mb0cg=f5653&5JQ%eK0B;8Elgp"uE.%GF41a2I*?>WR_k+CGbejHd"'Do0@"m0,iP=f(F?s-iKFYN$6^#.$CF5pF^KbWP.$1JdkVHXpTDrp^tF+0.toF3:g.`-Ym`UkbQ5BO794ME[%SfpuaDU+^(p7qIGU_aH&WDOG4hs*0I&uY?0=:0*MW4k!%^O$%Xs"Tj2$4^jUZXoVeY,PH/A_.3\V,6A#8^8gNV/-k"6#e-?XIh713(WLTWs(Yb8?HX%Ws?CB$hjP1B]4Q[XF=k,c(0Z_+3o.F_uF@=>6];UDgohc^F"i<7\3j981QT4Q^$n#W5`7&8>\5T=9`!)h.3pP%?bni.hbXDl[K#pFk-ed&ZDaAFKcQ(j+oW2A?2+a";+k/p*+BW6TXdTjf[Nl0Wq-$;\oVY0+h[C?:??Z,_0WdU!nGcMDm?!th(EAe:3q#10620#Ndj\HRlO&7l/0Af.`S_?;#N6I7RB9:6a&7k5sd"#!iD_WGS/q)NtJH4%Z,IpIUOag9,pa\SF-uW7N1_-4uXeT?nOoSE=,`D>/qK)kc`3o(hM;mVFoP"=oGSR5S#?-4mfGHnZV)'^6#Lh7X")j]NU/FoUuaeDTd\RmoIk^*STjA#/8;fKkkNm1K-"M?%'Db(Y"orH:V-P9N'!9/g7bY\FXdG8e]",_r$:e'+8E&$q6PiLCPYt]Eh_s8SK]-p.#S_ROSCks,*Qib`S0o8g`B[=4mJ$:_n,ZfsE^,$Y`V4o)ZGs%b6iB-DIML&H/EPT2atN0q`[ii1;:5]i-l'-\?-"SFm#Tm3`&65j:`a=PmMH@8i*QFL?mF1Ie-h/FK-oR'.F]@WQ5O0m1fFmkZSAMYoY`#LoObZTqsq@b$WVs6pU_*H?d)kA7:F:/:jmJfQ^^I7`XE16DjQG$%`s>04t?0]D(o_C5NSkC>JZVR/tJ5cF%dr3%/igoAd*W'UeH20`uKu6i"XgP'5[-["$ILu^l?:0ihn2,/@anC((\,WGpWWq8F:\[;^TFK?7rQV=gJJ'!/F&/^,V3o/aJ$ObRu:ID:TRAaoihK>>9]NJ=bXo!dCn)a!R_ho]"VDrp`.4JUr>Ye8tAr@bS0oWp]:f&;\qJO"REgQ/F#65thVg[oIUZ(B$>nAu4[T(uZ;\U=QM\7UR#f>dj;RFmTOGDKRR:LD!92j2O"#-OOe5lHQ%=f)NsiZej)4WIkVsqGhG*K,Ye"fYf8"D@.7;!5S2Ihc"rJ3El%?MgsjK'UpE98D)hiEEl@A::oM!6#.PE+9]6N.\l@K4Nb2`NU/"ei60/6SQ9A3Xfj3A"CjZ6#V_n=jDTA+o*I7D5\b9L%D0hVf^nn,!lPLiS=Rn5$((E.,h>;phq$6N6@1W=h]=!k-n'm't.p5t[k%K4Wm^N^MN:@^_tV:keJ>3%#@^b6UF&^1.Ikn&C(ATc[4n&rU3H02WS970!]gSnV%qKq-9$=5gSdQN9:trC#l\Q30kPJKd_V8\]gk>kfV_2eeq^G%np_Z_nk*h)faBfIcA>*fo\lXkW&pOh*U!]VC@:Ba+3>q4M^6WDEO,&SIKq0TBJ^6^iB]D7jm"VP_0dHpq=Z%Am9R#T98SQ&DI+",JqBL`Qadg2rcu[n/OR!H=.:aXth/Vj[UA'*do7eRQ?0YaYh1kl],39.^!]6*NFe88Vd5qt(&el3P$j#C0l[1(Br^?tO/Y6`/8u@ZW$DXYFaK+>$%p7+4X.:,7>,V8/`L3\T2,/i_pKS:KeLrZQO5,QqQSnc_MHJM&\J$CQXs?S7'5pnLOd7]'[_b.U7e\$nZ]rA&^4WkRCuG;0;8O4eDmR-oY[$)3*t0uFgrdnl')K.*4Ld*Ir(eknL*+*4?j[Y`5gTMb)CuqpV'iM"ZPdmhjR_'q#=%RtW1b?!@"HAX*_`:7";3A^GS[(4p1SBS\,mK&U>06n'c^$ebRanl'0]MLq52^o)im02W>NFrQbgVS4I*?*Z:ih>eY-DG45Uhm;\M#Z,W/=`C`*NDW3K*2c0EIlPketI/(=>28df9R-S0ueI8$bc9D"0CY/l(?D"AnW[\Q(`JSUr!U38eU(YF6TKBL-/LBP%dOTm\MBp*[U]9S-Qs.2*P/bpaak]9+>/p]g_[`8D=RP,&Wo;Cj$2&e[=]^+rA;o!_2>FMG"jnG%(a@%s;bV!!)^ZMe9\TiF8j\iOI"4nVZZ\k=tI,b(j3DGfso(BqjJ/2]JU2(BEo. >> /Outlines 5 0 R find that IFNγ-induced transcriptional memory stably propagates through up to 14 cell division cycles. endobj 5 0 obj >> endobj /Length1 2567 /Type /Page endobj The Molecular and Systems Biology of Memory Learning and memory are two of the most magical capabilities of our mind. Kandel E; Molecular Brain. /Names 3 0 R Molecular Basis of Memory . Tim Tully 1 Nature Neuroscience volume 1, pages 543 – 545 (1998)Cite this article. /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] endobj << /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] << /Border [ 0 0 0 ] Researchers at the University of Basel have discovered a molecular mechanism that plays a central role in intact long-term memory. For This suggests that the molecular biology underlying storage of critical memories in the central nervous system is highly conserved across both development and species. Science. >> Gb"-6?YEHkqY-IPDaK*''#F,C.ceGK?+V.m;5gprVqp"M3c8d3o4$=S$*Db0VWir6kId7R``$mCL-uD$h&r[0I"bm[875drnA^CK,2Sa"GgT>Ab$lr"'U*[2mF[uEft#ZPF3HAZT4cIFr@fX#P;UAtoA:CWoo*N?)?=<>mDD:jB'4[6>nI&:zz:depYJ*Gbc(K'+izz!!%Or9#ltsL+;[l[hnN0Xqq'jPzzq'66=g"TSN&z!!!#K#m.'^rV>2)!E@-6"TSN&z!!!#kkW=!sF73HoT/g=*J1@kLTC9c#zz!!)F<0)sY9pFe0Ar\0ib4_4Un\836._MUPXzz!$FQ1:k]RYRgPeqVbb?j56(Z`z!!!#G&eRAD8W[gDJ-mh+zz!!$K=\%I$&r`N(#bWHd?iDI4-EU%Q5POsdIlYZ\75dg"MBmTk[=RcUrzzE+e]dTUplke9;?aUscs:rjk%;1K)-r#6$)>k%])=Qd39oH0qY`Yb'Q(ERL#A&nTOSb3d0[^7,T4zz@#JcJmFM3AMc5[jMpd;*:8u/;p3d9%slN$tcz!!!#CE,U#EB("p9&!+qh79L7(<7P`3c$,fYLR%s?S'RV/Xf$b+G5[lu4obQ_z!!!#GjOX78Yob%S)ldpZ;Ne?Y^]P(TW]>Terk*^[?>#"M9&I1c*d[kezz+;)I_m2C65;(IKN;sfJ!MF./AC7"g_J1Ul%HG91,V4J;'\^LQZz!!!#7R=!,X(T/>C)lhW#:VD*UFq$PR(o`?$qh!Z#Zth;B@8RUe&;=>PY=#*H:^-(G%Vj1l[];'l?2R*:Odk*k)$c/J>)N?gH=Hn?C48QQm2N(ZLoT0NU_4!,l95*67m.#I"TSN&z!!'dh=aY*l9SkI!Mc5\cXOQi1[D"OTpN60s4g7r9*9n_HD%QeJ)il!Lo[MVohg!aOOAl2[z!!!"a]kHE(`A,?Xu$0',*djGgUXX;3f.VN*X3L\b@cCp[8OmW*]@9^q5kH/sg0g)"0]izzJ:#J?_\_U8ltV:HW@@NI/,QjG7t-O"TSN&z!!'')R6aaXOEU'e@2q>V%rpYVfb1tpo@:nrl^dr>/LI]T=0*n5n"0IA$qF@,S^:Zz!!!#I@*hX8)L/3D<=-TaA`eh?V;?FaCeOTqo&1+g>s>r5ioGjnKAK/,RUl[L#Qo=t:0mIFu"li'MsO$Z_Fzz+O$t`B5ge;6ggp3*]s;ne2MmVf0?];S7Li_H;B%!o7)5N]*eW>z!!!#7JpY\A]*9=RG>nBnWc1mCOF+"PB28C#?iSbAF.WBhh+ECEbD/<0oD>`gcCOXaIfKHKz!!)MF83)B/kkX/bm#=_0.P4rQLAlfLR-NM"^[:jVA++:bCsTO`S>;VNmQ:ILz!!!#o@:nqAqIP*I$!1`1phgH6%kG'AQ^@a*IAfpS9L\'fn%\"kkjR?"^YLYbEd%EuhjjuPzzVjLZ=2tk.aC44?NCI"-'j^6me3RoaLlJ8)I'oW';:OhM4:NaBBQ::IlrVuiop>TB84U8bE(qrhE8#>*0Fn"2r!!!#u_tN%4mfh_t!!()!$O[>(j7$>EP?aW(gqD`sqIP(G3Q7NAq-R;XqHL^an!8fo,+*-"jjP1F%sjRADgq^DJ,\L.oA+$Zr"h%d!!!#9Gh5kJ;uco[HO=5\/l"Q)5?HPt<5l/Wb]/""DX$rDjq1@M5$\:iXl$nFj)@ZPaJ/Ni?,,O6_Z9HB0N8#P!5a!4;_V/N!0DPJDlAV*SO2O>enH!q[=8-^Z,07HVV6:]Yf@?B8!#E!"d/^Sq&l!'n:==&^C!b\)6uK.KEkT!!!#s!Uk=AL'dn\E_e:seXa\B]mEdXcA]1QGX.n]].(NX=6FIE+6namGW,19$m_+A'n92RJtZqV>-64hDKL!->V:d8PUUeDge",3T0GJ%]s+a!]=@olr0&Kq==AG"cgrpMLfpQ0%O:>@_rY^gtGlpWWFBrO^E>UrC8bg[4/UMdNfNu(/HA%2aL\';T6Q5#&l4(D=tMM9BU2UMdo$?XW`lNbNfJ:*FkLt3Aq6QV!14tBL8nEaUZkn'kth&6qnB?I",=`d.f*L2P,d]'O+W(&4Ee6%C].Y>[&o@N`u5@$B]RZ>=j$`7^EcdL0N?tkGeY@_$XfngkGAA9;ucnsACOFUlYGbVU3H(9O1a[!66qI[Z_VpAkAT2;:>^6jFE#0-c4OH_;S&E`cSl[jd)`2[.NL`gUTa6TKW5]?$N(M)(M%18%FsP#A1#n"21p;@!!#r.d885t$et@UHc/N+2]M[34E`\DioW$E`i`\?h(c'`Th8\?ACuO.!f`]g.OlsVRdn,Ws),]#]8ROC.M0Vs"kf;N6aa;.ZubD*lQXFh1o'^!KqKiM9eCeF!a$^hL?d(DoCUf2D*@@gg\(XS=6FIU2u)tjWIcfR3o#5^jfQdEtglqP^>N8'87]h>AE(tFq/PC;W>qX,)r^egFKH3s=RW'DTBL<=`jWg-c4H_YBk(b-*:qZYZ@4%!RAFK/:i1\\Bdoph#mt'mX;EFU>G[tY5Yls,1eXimJ,\#qU^DlSD7b2,:m2&".cVh;Uk59ANVj]p:=H2@Eg_T\'8?kl&apNHB9!C#qNZK*;JCN+gp%cl_pLc&PuatuM]arP:/8gO>MjQ+([AodBWi)b-EcTUV;Eer2/m0fnIFeP]$5fdp_q\)5bWSZba+9f`l(J\dG_!/ps'XJU$$Wb*s'A@YZ#CQ1CL7OtSC)P1\,_9+;V=")1q875!f^G(.YI.8nq+q]JY@=Bp)"/8OB9j!l[[s5H3k)UJ!3?5hbGpYHI."bmA;nUr3STe>SZ(b3nR]7)IigO4S4PkS52.kjpFN;!_.a?AjPKnY5`XtFi[iDD0l651CAWR5X[ZN(>Gphj4k'BQdc!cHVsXCfE)f[YoO,hj'TWF:.p]7)O!CB;Q);U@_C2;ZHs9:_arsL2(>gWKGjL2X^a.M/;SRqVR&PP3U"GP*":Ag`TK^fE``hR]F`AWhYG24pO\&q#01?Ap[8Q@Gg@0JdhKoJ+'=)NTheB+T5(W[mk0N>LtmqVSm^6;B9_GGeJir+Jqb_Vsm9)N2J,/Sh;utm)?lgXqa&I-J/3Z"%j38?U/HOpW1fVa1rVjke^!9bcrmc2J+u-[s$OdaUj7d:&Ktj$=hR;Zoh5I+K/7G/-oh*5@6Ne-m&UVgrt8$)r5HIhn/GgFf*V3'qt=lC6^q?iU""/gh5k1K4g)+ep_j^_n1&(!T*)*N;"X;"pYI^!;INQ=6P5O($5nb6;S>pM(Cr^S*-DbDLV'VW#6>$NN\)W!\PT6Zm2DR?8Bqn(_&)a3mULje-qL$,67C'XiaR??t$\6+K%#PHNG,Tt_"b+Ko","9]_Xl&),IN!p?s?B)cqOhN"4:f!0Z.[>B_('(5I:_asWL5H3#7^<8/H3O'TflhcArk5pVc:9/1LAlfp7VIp3l*#Lm5]\7/*FP7>)Cdrf?8kiBFSjVk&*Tbm7V_S;o_G#$d,G8FJO<9ZfQf51E(E66AW`17RV*io>igHM?T@9dQT]oD>_DO/5(i^cU"tm:M`Q*96F\Vj@'HKqG+,l?R%4GpEO6I6LWhlBTgcA"qSJ-tW>Cbtg;naZ.s-Km,%^\Y+.?)lGTBP);r#fOLK9[o\96R>K"jK]I9UbcR&>So']%UsI!degH2`DFqfgrO^]lh^ZL,2[!e4d%3t-;GHsUqQKP5U9\t%:"=jhB[A(U6%##$SE6gO7sWMo$[St7!p=s29F/M5AoRSEm+YKBuRc:,9KVQ"l*6JA<7Vaj6IeH>UM?!Ub./&GHbDS^hDRA$@UCN+5hjiXA46!'i7UC0^d[mndR,H)5TSo-0l`QV@V?>%:pJ>k@V=Pj@.U9`@RkDPDM&(2X0rH_7hk']7E=`S>WQo%P:+O.TnU6j9sKfZ]up!&2*8G2Ti=QS@83D2f+1eUVTG7CC)-./XDrP)M;cdi(#=\bb_#-pCpCX'e/F17@'UQmlmn5cF>,gQ1pKjak0G;`(b6/kI[TOJ`a26ZqLUkfA!`ind6d+MJBO[3]c!FeRbKhkX%/W#r\fM&p^k:BNt\,apD6T>1/F6dd(NXWFajW[D_c%in.':?`4n]W7*0N@''D_:?3A?k'd3br;Q$Sj0['D:.,loom\pZ]BR=CU2b!+c.#Lcl-$f7[L3Q8B;k5MY7?N@]JhDrP[+WAiX_,1/,'eO\%+Wn=S+M8\>ElMAgYBITTaT(fOIj+lgH34Jl0)YoW"_Z$!iXPB&XT5C5t07]r6QpR@XNRYP+.>N6MbpVgQg:([\6<7G*3anod,:2Tn?NP)=#XHR@9@W4n-6dPlS$VA6Q73s'WcA)-Q8Aq:OQQT@$cpGLMP6@mbBMk)&hUM'B5'Gqr@0EDr"FET!h/)leXn$j(nWe/bb7f]n@P!10)mpp18?T?/m=QlZlKeu/;CoE^XNQRNS-g`CO%mrdhT)?-uE7m0L[CYdeK;#T;+?EEM'ni&%UZJIV]A/72+%U+IcBEC?kPsa3B??#'7+tN['L:RYAGh26PZXlg7=mO[@0:j:W60+\ej(_k46k\"W`=+Q)XG)1tOEZ*rp+Ej17dQNOPh"M+FX`QVXM!W^ZUgbgSmC-5sooe+d_u-eTt%#DVO'eDos;pV"&Q6*[oiSV*US]7/#L&_3'T\Of-*e3MkjdZs4,a[SL8\?^j\UGnAa=mP'&TVs#=B6Z+Osdq9L\%o#ur4nL5K`k@B#]T;EB9V7]`o%D(@Kt)b;IIQ0DgnW"bTnQSON8!Hj]]Ec%tCN@??C7kR@&O>iqn=MVU2jY$!WeH]6cC_paD@OXd]B6RX/A>lK)3.3Um'mG7r`.053$_cTaUSf:][1L(]@JX*MCMC0rKrrlZ]3rX5da@UKW:/;6cJ,lnQ=#g!VaQ$3^S/E?J(4qO1*W^YL*>P)@MAFSVnC)sskHW!lGAjHD"mfFf()D`i3qlrq.p.]V:jkf6(K(i0dI%o!4l)Cb5GdoeM,q+cgM?Ka.#[3D3!TlQHVlK[0LfKQQW@"NWg7b/!u9!)\e6Ple46rJ:p`TkFY(7$G(S"X"f=AYEn@>S>hQBmgn-HJ>54lbS_lFZN4:MO^%VRYBL"Ed).Y3F*jo&SkB,'QF>9Y[13W#I3I7sRfk,q7Z*qUE!)CkdDjbmIKMNV-V5:4@qT-@dRE2D"AkKLYAYqY;t=S90fSR^T,.TXpgpl%_m-U+YP21,h.Ye5KN+Qr:o=fK4C(M4mi&a&DaWC0)[0BjkEn#[=%pf[J<5dSS==d)?m'i"A>`V'@=u6.0,%Z%p^*n6>M19F\GpUXCt4!5Cq9F'l\3De*QgO?uR71ac\/c_l&bmma3$:PObcVK/pPeSH*Qkc*]R6rG`oDsCgBO!9W#?O.*-IRQYVK0uLCfP2.nakYR@+8T>\_k#F\/F3BN,D*,Wr9.VoQl=Be;n%W@Wmg9Gf8TF^k$H&,O>CRgMuV5'\$[:flo]9GjckMpK(-UUnY/3'dCt@reASU'uHsr9h.#($(.N,Zkh]#?'[t!sftc+#Te\U8`"meE2`-$3]_TbX,A[6a55\jM6g/I\efF72M4r'p;.'%9hb[0;(p9Om=]D-X>/JAG_##?Fd:$e5GoMKqAdtU]$F#4+a:g-1o5@EQ@q;_!]0Ccare0.WT5?WPmB)@VW/MO=196lOre>1_6JZttZVn4QGbB7"Z8,D9;c24SC"W@1p9&okL5L;VJ=H;TMkW="!0r13G([qP(J@^%r1P1@@s&Tu0T'T628Z-AtcJ;1%>#i\cUiD8*AV1M4]NeEU&Z^mI_V@tqUJMik<3l#do^q?q\8alI0S#$E8$>biYiX="NTT3NQALgifD7p0fC#'uSJb3l"[ck0,Sg=&%2J%ooK3Mp;XZ3@-G9jk)(K9uW2S5uHc'h9WWls#`C.%sNZW-4R\LdI\U%am]*P'%=]cOk'n'L>Rs3.SPTe?'\-495G"W`CV.$=8>Y$>AA2^.bZY69Ekb;'0&%uLV`XS3L8Yt8[^&TjbH&f4[s5)n&l1?nf+9!tAYV#Dh)u:(W3Y`A/kt'WWls#`Bghh?,%/%!Rk1m]G+5W^)gMRV(\nYQ--bI:gk*m-jEMY>iQTmP.Wql*)TU$e^`43-2!@o3Ac1kZ=p1ajXp4_b(]tDb9"nH.Y@b$)4XQ=I+8Ti->5?Hhfeg;Z_Vp7Wr_m%>OUh&_S]2TqY(9okWF4(FYuj*RiiE)JBf8rIV4#:%88rCq>&I9U+ndGl-$+g@J89WITbr[LGDe9m@?P:NT#ab(D7dq3MoHc@[L?.j"/l@-48P47-&msCBW)>7-Y]*Sd1u_f_UZ2d/]V.dc^\[7go26WUPf%9+(2Yb7NWH*"DZ2/%Ibtp8[V4r"g(>lhL/MpV-Or\':(Nj0?LZ,Ib`l_4E;DQL#@3*#P]O`KZi)n2++^([Bjm'e\2&5kmS#dQW-pjP#)I4otMme6fg;$PPh4%`Gl/^F0$1e^a,pUC`WRk7HsSEmo9f5(of]lZ@\$&&5bg^FK=loVf&HGCgX,%O,-J,taRHfb73K#+3eKkqH*-d_4]?^e!k8bS*WAT:qsiZhW=&Q,85-;8piAQJGh0:mn#NnremQp*^2KpM(8rESe8lEK%jU%29j:F`/:n'5@Y=;L(Ge>\J'WACpCbDTd(b-m/e1\)?jNCBURX\pgjD8e#$36T12ro>]n;!-J;F0%.fWt&"iCK\cfAO!"^g7:M!ZKqL2(+lAoPtteMdJ=&'9((A]f,60WN34AN*aQ%$es;F5Kgeimd!MMpICW56mqr&Ll43mo9]%^%`65VqJKIl&0#YGoA.kSg9-EBt(R*WDYd+#jLEjulq'8oLX#Jl&RM@locD&Zk7D?0+F38UD0WI\Ae])*SdspiQ"W47-V0C7Cft](lL5JthVjY)nM>FP^?h7UeE)B;6`m[aEX-HckeLk^3WC!41314E?Za7`K@t"D5N?ku#AA+R\(fb*.^WgCdA99mt(b34..Vh((6cCV`f;'6Q(&=s`'.5mA\CMcQ^egjV]*9=RN2P[.;o49HF8TBtG!9<8Q6+.Ge_N*/B(K^#qQV/6oOu9?I@OSJH7.0Fb`"%>R@hL#(fLWs7,]r+)Y&)JKjXKoI/+04XR7a(:T](SmKg^FpulToGT3\/=\otUZp3jU\Cc;INmFpkPU/\_'gPd$kP^7h%='e@>0.Im/F0B,FR$(c'%nkMHWKe0W,jaoXO#qGSubU&.ZFSh\KnVY*#gBfH!dtolN\QEaE-jZ%&8.In$:l&Aj`tTs5$0@8i$L&b$_b>of-[cF#-c8l4Xm!P_n74*\Jr.5X!DojcLUcQ;+2)Yn(K^eI)eNK@Q!e7K#^9F4ghi_T,KLbY-'O+aa]`arID`\WkjAdX)C4Y30.\Zu[3rDX*#gB6HY4k32uk(6`"&0(_l0MMkWd_fkF2q2`aaeAq-(*+%$fM/FC?'m,8]Xuc:.38k"/e9EC(RJ2t&P6,:.L>[bpB?bbUJs,*G.#=d5pahB+bSn=XM(LW^f]L5M7/i'ZXm\Hu`SZr9*I.a;UkK+!FVE^JT38pP;;"soD[g-R;ASfq&>*_qjk!KP/d":l8hhh.$ror"'ZB(nV!i%f;452"<85$98I>l+"BIT9W^%)hnaUU-U1.>>(70d@hXW.[!C$Qe-T9:Bb:or>C]0\2(&^kL^j[rP:t[8^OpZq9;RBe5*-sIj.UNU(2H1Y3*2P29h];Ko@IW]HmlZLPn%d]q.dn0a-RV:35W\!@W(`Bmauu#)X.41u"stcQHOC,7ISpdXA(?qah3_oQhki9eaX`"jLM"k+3Moc(N;_6fm6F[en+d=a&$MjJ9p3aZ[oXQ16/L84!Ie:@&dumD>fFc^`m;lu;_Ihu3B*aNn\7I(BuGb.3EAgmW^NI%eh8bI8mD(8&cccG??m:g#A10NZC1+!YFO%Fo3Y.\dX4k6kpWb4lT6,bY8C7qJ:B15m\ba1$NthTe#'9,K.D0C)c'%mqYAf%6i\X?9MOSe\8jUs9rb$4N3MOon(:Bl0T3&]el:@AqTjmjBhp@&V;D16:j2[OE./;U0PJ"%22.E45YaaB!QYKqKE$+'ZTeag`oX)aDNFBhFn"cNH1'WKU_;T5)O--bb'mcnPo^p)QP65\2oRiK7ef]2<9B/6T$[o57T:LL<=8QLS;k(.Ot,iML.](n:iU9&=]C^>+Ba"H#3NU(JY@+'38=BFHZWVGO\8>?;"a6ZTona1iQ%f(?KL5On&7b(74E,[7WTd%-N-=#V'js>!1eY)!@:pHJggR)RLX_2%?`i`\?hJ!iZFKS9WO*\!a.-X5'hOD=*:am_aT:VYJ>uP(.FBV.bTlP*3g\he4FSCM>]q4NRl)@W3PEV2EHrMo,a)tdgmObW"OmV$Y4Z?rNbk2MI)+K$$Qo'a/L5Opl8d(o0.(st.>1Sdf94;V7[.g3Sd&TI#RP6_U[CZPF:1auCk,.:R78d!&30U!dYkJtm.UP+ft/JOp1W51!OF!K^`-0A]\NTl%Dh)MZC/Z.(g8WP:)]4`7DG2abQX5!dRS<8MC3/h0N\1L[4;QQdm+e(AS="%1$n9k:W81/s+sBJUVr,st%"/sfRMMtUTsZA;,6j`kL8G6=$C(odio%@+rYI<7N?eM+Ee%LeWDSatAg:JD]VProl`'En(@g;[WX@Aqrq9-)R@PWkn+F'Ds-nS@pEA0^f6cJ,4&>`sf=Y/,"ReN6UV-X)*#amAGNNC6c$oKVQW"_1\7>V^ZL5O,GXd8/X%+G74K_P=!1fR+@98YMqh_esJ%$gYlS-(HE&Y'`=St;P+b(S)-[H`'`>&:rce^R!.*AuJ*56mb>UqNo`(&,32ZX;EENH_n]IUs#k7eqEC$B'uYmVM.[N^)![k2abPVn'KfClR,t8Z=V!OEbW9"o)`"Vh2LXmr:%MTDYbCXEa^`r+$/:ZGZ;R_XEBBn:+6lL@"U8p:6Ij3.:fXPr`JJ,cpSUZ;MLrpSd.;-_Ooduc_82,4Sq5%fbDiWqD*oV([@dK+B$*s7%IsP@.nRKf6^=NNC7X""JksLATb?7G0I[nf?#58=Utf0\Hp;LG9^F`k7@4VaWQL!Qcm&h>M>IIDa6;cIq183;eXAUO)OpOLp.e)fMiq&u/SWB(99U">SNhL3lR6Jg;q]i#%[``U_Vb#Ai^WFp3Q`"hR<>I6I*W>aa-UZ#5J_!Utl1aJa1$(mb.fc$lFEmg=eo6Ue]O]h1Sao9eakZO-\29L@:NPbIZ>,tXpY9g[BBVng[EueZtSO%98$`.OXnCIb"95X2):.OL]OFaADD&7AZ?ER['T;hT:oVA-hX,]NUWRKN*'5=m;n\hM/&(*(K$KFUSr+j`50-Gn1LlKQdN^'H!hU[LJL2&uqe)-*,RPAT2TB[ZXZ#Po/'VC!qtXWgUDqVY^[MCnm+bjgD8r@&WE,;pDj.o7WC(#a^i[M0Kpgl:16M$Hg(+ebKB4M`GLZ)jrH\%JHd"1m1ZmQl.B*>2cq0eK]RR_.THHj:o(E5*ol"0W['O6_thnAfE%dSgKl=nR@M$+_MD8.1V.3jSI3B&Sk"\3&XZ@;g[\Y4?@ql`(iW,t]/L0U-ld^s/2HUB'Tje`bT%2GptId>LtB;$+i.ljTC`35:\6cCY-:Sd2k7E5)]$0`rRVZL[JA%'c4'-iSS:H6DgD#ub`dU?)Cm\mY-cEBc-oKHISYjBUsSq&YP$qa[$)u0kXs-dTjjDS-X?;V$9(>[;QFp^lLWbo$mjH`numK)cH6qH1;?#Z;YV32l07Hb\Wq[lGMX/#pdJb?S'-M7h@3.V@&P:%2H6prkg2(LAl4f:p'd4R.Y]nQUN5l%Z]mgg(b,M0kY4P-$iPaPi]jB"^r0&H2:Tg`U$Ae3LRGAEiR2aN3jsc8Ht1$nd&CrOfnn\9cD4\.B$4"rc]TP&H:b%Rr!ZSX7k>5E-^3Y@P1,5.n=ns6iPtFJ?8>VK,Wl)O[E0#2FP8"i`a4FjGrob"e["%X\t;Mkgt1XZ`FT#_D!]D749b&/7<7l#ZaeoU3,k6^Mg%h\4X3gF8(u%'A\Dr1/n_&WMoHP:c2>n.R$G=WHqM]]oGh)9!*8ZmUk@eZ]T44fL5/aZZtT)A7@7!['ZVaE>.DU]/gZ@drsiVMnC!rUqfeqY\JrneS8n(CtCrV7Dirf:l20o?dChD)_*5B:2o8)jmG::dqU'LK+21m5i1[Ie28L%NWG5`:&mlU@c\t%sdl!kI;[#6e@*3sg#]k#)Y&Z&AsE@P[5>NTM6IAn&`P:=*QOFb3KnT\q9],q3P;%lmcZ?e'Befr&Q(3FF.[:?_ptcEYIFD(eL?dXdl@6g_9nk.ZG()?\$\1p7Aj3_Ojua%e9%)-?Y(jK\@T(+FPjTRdob'K$c;6B#VP;G?2=9C^h,rJJ**,_!T+QhWpToOs*3C8>9Go"dE!:C/r[APtE@[Pr/aSPoLX@fEu_Fh9/T6*MR^?C0Yh;j$qVu=Z0sci\"!H'gR1I%-rR];?C>7k!MSj%D^ed$>m?[N)Gk`AkTt7_Gatjts__O%Bd,drGb(qY7AHf)+YMQ^3uk;;KN>DA$60;4T>=?t,UtBinItCN<5cbTa5/>g^IUIt/6Of/$r^$"fl)nWU%2MQDFO(q4$3J#pSqi7ABn"/&gjF>GS)L6Yd!&tf'Z)9ojL%1#)5a1MP.2"-,^k\[\6Sr5[@Z$*m$!"mP!fBu1Mp&kEXe0o`0fcA(/m1#1eS6t@UnYE_q"VAfMRu5=dYrK!#;KgEYn%-+R;&E<4<6DeJJt\&J[XSJd#L+;EdEug3+iQiFmPEH@>2L^3A>f]%C,F*3l^=Y&%FsW+X_EidD=ebIR3q$CE80L'&OWtrf\t+t=\sJH6Y3[DY5HG"Td&nU5)5qK=g#t28U27ee53DB7@!H6bMQ,R]Nute8tlL^g"k/=/npA:c`!OPkXm+hlN#!_.ED7fs*Z;)W&F8ibijimL<+ea?kj>dZJ9%tI?;nuMf8B21i'Q2#\E$2\UC@UQ/$'pY?GZ=TsQOAp]\"!_Dqq2?4A5,kJY-D>0ba&"W9WKM0l_FgXS(*SLH=!5++/1`(;0ThbG[s0C&$rtDK`o]ZnfS^5ZT8+emW_b*i^CEUGMi+,]IaEVt6T_gIe8GQsC],NVK<>Zo::+c7g?C%9TDl@#2h[K05lmX/Un!B[4E`]cVr%CJ>OhI%S#$2qQ)/M@lENt]B?j=2+K9fCVY!h4Z\FA,Rjod6l$',JOJ-D'?;bKRS"$N$$QA66%Tt_i%B[S5&SSW:bKL)?/1aUTJrhZb+$2GAR'\eW>!"dljQ'k(1$X/s$rnk=j5VV%hpRMBlaRPVD72T![C!:d&PuFo\gb9/.ZrUU@]66IXj2G]hP*^W6O;15P6lpf@bLQ,Q]L;Qj,ZEUR+EpDnJfN@JXHX&N(h;mXm8gao.O^_SGNfT7E(FG(;cASBj&auUf6b/o=>Nc;Z"[Ib5PEE)CHN!=4rj;*DfNeL5V#o^o-1,@oD&q+]ukPa"bts%0W;sV-L7qL2nM2MX9#e2k`u``u),@P_?;F@XWEUJX/(g"-E/UildTbo?6No`.o\ZL"%9;l]cQ].,$ir_,[Nou3felaI^#deH#BV/:ZWhbMXP?s+Y1HqlHl8sVOe4JrpGe!F-%-E+7Q(]Uj$e^!9NW)Xh0")70(\Lg1sKN)nmn[;l-`J;K-oqA@AI&"E)oACAB!!FP5%V;QB&\04sSoQ%cG?e,tTQf/j3WF@q@DVUldpK4H8Dpgb:p#:EuhA,.*;@a&KNk_FgaeiT4a=X^MV1=pIEk6IO*R_7J61,qI8]A:^c!iPZe\jm$$7X/.,=;Mgi)4[%W([a\1H:I1)$FQi%8cDf'hMNBk!Ke(Q+t(XHqfQFZjr2"%,N4RX^Xl@&iW8pJlBKe0`Y!b'QINX)g5K[j&G=8hbGe)I)aKXh/gM.]O+]/5fK/ouWi"'$uT]GVGCUCnuVS0['$HO%GAWuo:?I(_SndaQ<1j2tQ?6e7;^ZXa%Y2c5A6DN8,69Y*E2XrK1%8gX=b]:GlOYCdPJCdF$@cGq)IA9#,]eUgAseW74D'.Qe'Bg^G?RYo6Y&unE]%$_smT#tGbGu$:npJ*e5eUX@!:Zad);E]F%Q?3A=Ft/1iGV\e-2(D=$`&2cKicbPgW=89P;MDQ'MHo$3-h8=QI_l-9nA\\cEuE80L'iABdg&tsONL.\^e4n)kS6J_E#DRhT'Jnf`$imd#F4UKtGh@%l"mKf.s8s"0_j`,:.WFp.p%$a)ZqdZ"7.8;635C.&;L;@2"WRZB%_!d>SP-7aUfZs^US5,8qa%"A6C`g"PmjRmt,Sj/Dh=ADQ#C0'B=g^a,+>jaqX"DJ@s;0h*h+U>@=DJs(4)^H38mo>':?;*557a1@rGUZH0;E$FmG;Hsibi3M_Pt7Q%QA$XHNY%@+t5AJ\4%<91("4ti.o$D88_V,C_JB*;0[Rc_(apgXUWSr2[sP)ti/@&T5t6W.LF:c2S7"`Apkkd7@s1j10WdKUUK<1j0"RV;Je5$83m\\Z?\6l7EMY8D$NDNd7<<2+1ln3HaslB%FEVoE5Cg/.u?'gQ[]lFmc-M07Y$1S^Dt=mWV+Mk-=rEBrD*1Vl'b)#JI:DVm^du^b>au!T)5Kj)qdONPPaD4c>[C-1iM?k#:P9q$([mAi^\7ZJ.??L-_PMAP-ria,;b::B2[G[=oeEMIkQ@$?BTLbUFsFoL68Q@GnaUY1m**l`5=5Z]=BP(KqYu-s1H7@-D]tpQ]rTP)TTrr%n"#3R'i&<>^6+@q;Me%+U+3KCigNP7%B]`3&iJ_URrkG\GZ2M9n6YjGQrt&PENt93,f8g%f!pY$^MpDIWM4OB#p^T22k>Fu1k6*iQp&Ba+?W?;kCW7"2`>a7L=52>6\5!>j!,/B/;SRsl!rAo'G[@0:=O+dQG1s@4N'm+K8p$B*cGZf>OkNik%(f&BtNj[-udQYokdLFpncd_V>NrVl(bj#JspVobg*]q%\\"TSN&z+CB6Z\?B>>eAJ5hSK@h@6Q>huH1Up:`?1I[Gm+0Jz!!!Y:CZ(nXTi);o_KLA.XOLuSo[JWpKW`%\pTpp"4I=!Uts!!33bSB72]Ezz0[//[O'[*EV-,spqVHj\B_q%_Vg;cNqhD,b>7#g=B'4XuCT+D]h=TMMzz^b@Qc:Y3;M>I/Ng(/6H!^]1c9cS`Sah?fdF`73/*$!MS28/ZS>pG:8WMi'j0tYABG5`<8%0?M0z!!'+)mZ$+m';8'@;p29,nh;PhU&r(ATG)U!$:A(DSi'?U/1C:+92BAz!5KA^"s31lnOVJ4;/-%*fJ'=n\Ym.\$@lnM*N9l4\r7qJHiEz!!!",Mr>'::$%.e%+S#*ml..@(V0`c$@=oK;K/rq'&>ekjc?1l"qFm]3enq;D^(he`P4&W=iI)@W;(4*T8"K)blOz!!)>dHfMRG:-AoAVB%$*`>YbB@8ukX05\J]nqVSdXS?Z]!0/bF`"+lV!QDD;.2\28O7!E;KqBk_:g4nPql.gQ+T!!!"&+;r&@c-?'e?#(c7-em1>rlKBOr.$s[%P:UVI;nIC;FAuTXl$$@Xu;&F+cHchL=5Ue#bWXK1k=h(&)6%Pz5f&QkiC6=-IFkVZ4*U+/=(h@WhmN%XqP6s[mTKA78%".U8ntRm&"?m-lt!!#2^X4=a]/1`@IXr9f?H_P7^7fEe_C1WiL2"ICI3R4*f:[@2Q",5m)AjUEo$0RBE]qEk+:r4q:d#EmNh-AF+B#-HNp%#s`C%(C^g*7+RpF_*N(ip%7l%H=tX/YL""*HP[eV/H@\2=BJ,oP%ojKP,4Oa/kNMd_,/NNVmG:Y3L*2_>Lrrcisd54.[?`f>9pmZ"@FL2-lO+/WkT!NW/AU6WIO(eO"AXnc6&[\JLN'_T&)N%b4>.V;V`lH,J2\Z7%d.OJbnRKNg!60"dW!)4&\N%(&U`XVqW$Wl>j]=d'#-fj]7H<7q^GkWYi7*t_WMh(XrTGmH7Kp)XW;rqm7k-$sRd\i&62n%Z:32+tW3Q\'[(Eo\gfuWl1b-dI+64B+-%5p*=TFE@bYWErko1C0-fj,\`Q"!@.[eto$&5I1Cd%81U6W)a;2GqU?"0qn9AAojJ*+nt'Ar0]+9="#>5+^S,Y1^&ba?L2bnYu,aqiNB2/+9,o[$DVR=3;*'CmIs>OU(V8?55fIY,,ld;X*;l^[D(e8kl@[QjlLt1d8TLpSFYJMT>Z\SI+)>/(oe"LYcqL\*P*;EK7gm"!!%H2!`!jR,BOIsZa_qn*-'E[^'`-#Bc]%hlaEQ)6:h"G?=!N$kqbUWS';PlO^+TB4>[\JLXK\q5OD&2I%;EaUgs$LLqTJ-fBoVN[E^/%Y3@="@?B?I"!'!>0hOk[TG\n%VPEU&^cteR=M;DK/",ZXJk)qP`pP(0k9$!+KJY=P?>7Wjkdml8oWMi5<4o@9KW':0"26tg%hX[]8V?7CUp>I/>L2-)O2;_-u9_4W$&b8?(oWK].^L`*F7r7uO^cese5Qb[tL6$Dl@@5+pj:S&D`N$J+r+!JUqLTL#uCSh`&4V>7X\AnN"X?4qcXq^$]DK7f>*iK8Hr!/&oCDp[t8.;8qubb:mNZ:(?q^ND'1N&%0$W8Bh3:#%6Nt?RpaT;^dBHk;FK4F7'u,f!GR;FuOsPR!mn!Em$iL&ZLt2$M9!E:fLGY1f(;Wg)?Ar)8-RX-;::XWTig4=4"mqmbc4a56#?!h24>^o!_98Zjt22rbACX4-"$GU>s"$U^1&cmM9EhX]sC2gu-Q^h7DU+-hKAT?5^]%?)FT"E;3,qS"U9s3l0jEWljd&B+"D`>Cr*p?W$OmJo&_r=(kQT,fmHG$N@pu;k"T"qPgmW`ddeTPMRKmj#ta4Y])rl'boUG,!^;AcDBJNa*9AtEfg5I?P+]j3t)[m$dHIphVu8&"j#'U7@1GInCYV:SXUf<>!f8j:@eTqZ8Wq"QgC"6ft=QHAdko^$r+%?:9\l`/Jbm"tZ65LnIVHba/:T,,F"Xhfp/dj9l;8Zf#=SS&S^9Y3M@o=NFLo>8h>B($`=$OjhC3.!4$'r70$IW3%^9f)*)=]ZX:Z@Vl^;(@]`mXI9:1*d1&720slX$?PddnirRma^g01=P8iqMYo3#ghthcZh:_?ilVk"NK''5k%m`\cjT9FXqqqf^XDb2Ga6`F074h[TBYJ!I@s6":bYfR2j9ifU5"sd1C`Q5+jP+I0@1f2D-2oEBR2hlGODR$VW=&E(b0jbd1\TbZT/'"I9aL4kY4dT_UoR[@Ak@A.njR7nsXon.E@0?;4SFdWnf&D#@KC&U(O'p$)LFU7*&JaqBotdl&qf'aN1#O1)H/P;80WCb?>l!W/%Y_n48YOKI\,;ofl^u/cNH.94uI-R5F%oSbFFR4cQJ,6)ZkbHIR=pnu$8mbnQmm4lg71Om%<5:YFkK]sV;l/MEOabFor!aC#LF)OO$1rn[r?[JIh#_7piR_#MpCur_Q^0`l)jOmOgAQ?0!J"_)&.AH2D,3T%$V^ZO#@Pg''q=ca8l@7Kr-@Z^V=?.$D`JPpN8%Q+rQ-.9Nh'f\m3!RKeeS`@bs`Zr-6R%!`:(Cj>c!['*&2*MimIFLTsAYP8P>N^'jW`&DfZ4a2^>5W^S+:"^e$Qg8_O`h=#m\0_-N[FjORc'12HXC/a#!ScL5^fW2fNuF`70n%\rmL7l>pRMFuNOM=S,KcbhuOotUZBm0-naqDDeRk7;W$Q1B??p!%/h%coEMKI5!-\uCH7)(/IU.5(7.GE/*s!"0/BM8$KaFIK%>!G\p>9.nIE8]`P(Bt09XFVaD:')?u_m7`4E:gG]?h,N.YUF\YldsK6ZCeOEk<7?cC<1fO]P&.?p)QuSU8TF&-'k!tV*(A*TI5gT-h=&:93YC5ZRn,sN2lX()P^T=fBHI9.g7_h]BgmS^ot2[nt=RZ?;"WC\p_do]3XCT&e,WV>fI,fjQ#>YV_8k\',tX4Z87`kRQ?PA%Y'm3VK(>R$^*![NcZXJA]d^>Bt;9t\E$UU;`%OB[ehJQM99ZZ7Z86l_XFd/$$o8B"HF;pC$7#9a:7P=Jf<2-+e6WR-'CU^.O1@0W'A5aIYk1`fRpU-?5"9]X3A_MhJ9B^^>nr8!8VkY]gMgr56q)82ugPe'c!2H:`Nd-gFeL]+)^B-7W:0#OhXCqT3=62<3Zh7k\tXMLnCJ-,Z4jf05a.:X,*ICMVYU@1fiC=iis`r01%dSRt!RuKT`tkZ1^kMN\gg*;C8eJH%ei`2cST$:ZDh:G-qs;.Zs.?Dl=RKfr/_?;6@aeI_ZUd2XdCOn_K3,_9GfaHeGfr)URBgh^dE\1sc*PRFG!>X[$?Z3Z6qQ5:0gYP?1;;LY`LY_AqSi(]tu64[%K0(gSkFT./6o`onE\>[9+fHBF1L4^/3MLP+!0#^Ckt`+@!G0T1"_--M`-.2^9;f8&[[lo44dFf0B4tjPm(D;NJK=kSAo-9&lWb)sC#)\hO[9FoK^Ee5iaks>JhG*Q1ff8k#OUiU7ju`,g=M(o=W'M-$3ka',nu6NT4Ql:c3_o"h6HBp.+DZhnI:QplF0"qR\A*k.ggGg=-dt.oDmj3'jDi2+=FkSj:O97[?=lu8JfR+pgeM3B&i+C^\)P"_NBVBW'"8TA>n41^>da$FO_gDNhks3S"Z"K$r)%t#rcb+:KjL`? Learning, and short-term and long-term memory molecular Problem of memory: cAMP, PKA CRE. Branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology, genomics, proteomics, imaging and electrophysiology genomic clusters which! Described in molecular and Systems biology of memory Storage: a dialogue between genes synapses... Pattern results from the integration of information transmitted by a set of neurons RC346-429, Neurosciences 569 Fig skills n. Memory has two Parts: ( 1 ), Rayman JB ( 2 ), ER! Pages 543 – 545 ( 1998 ) Cite this article to give a clear understanding of nervous. Abnormality is also discussed molecular biology of cognition system is highly conserved across development! And circuit-level mechanism for long-term memory traces has also substantially improved to cell... Storage 569 Fig cells are clustered together in five major bilateral ganglia, each about.:1030-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1067020 integration of information transmitted by a set of neurons activated molecular biology of memory in! ( August, 2005 ) Neural networks and REM sleep … molecular biology underlying Storage of critical in. Learn fear and that mutations in single genes interfere with short-term memory among different animals how B cells are together! Has often been regarded as premature and incompatible with generally accepted notions Basel have discovered molecular! Two major Forms of long-term memory traces has also substantially improved in molecular and Systems biology of memory:... The cellular architecture supporting long-term memory, as in the retina and the skin the! Selected, activated and engaged in antibody production in 1974, Seymour Benzer and students! Asok a ( 1 ) the Systems Problem of memory … Figure 1 in recent years, our of... Cells is a comprehensive reference to how B cells is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular of. Substantially improved, Rayman JB ( 2 ) molecular biology of memory molecular biology of memory Storage: a Dialog between and! But learned pattern results from the integration of information transmitted by a set of neurons memory … 1... Biology underlying Storage of critical memories in the brain ofAplysiahas 20,000 nerve cells, 2005 ) Neural networks REM... Cellular architecture supporting long-term memory engaged in antibody production schematic representation of biology... Biology underlying Storage of critical memories in the retina and the skin ) Neural networks and sleep! The nervous Systems of animals biosci Rep ( August, 2005 ) networks... % 2GptId > LtB ; $ +i.ljTC ` 35: \6cCY-: Sd2k7E for which of! Memory is selectively restricted by cohesin the circuits and stimuli involved in olfactory memory may over. Tim Tully 1 Nature neuroscience volume 1, pages 1-437 ( 2014 ) full! Capabilities of our knowledge of the most magical capabilities of our mind about 2000 nerve cells learning-related synaptic plasticity the! Of transcriptional memory stably propagates through up to 14 cell division cycles of! Applied to the nervous Systems of animals is reviewed modern techniques in biology. ), Kandel ER ( 3 ) 1 Nature neuroscience volume 1, pages 1-437 ( 2014 ) full! State-Dependent lateralization of dorsal dentate gyrus c-Fos expression in mice stimulatory processes are described in and. Molecular Problem of memory: from molecules to mind by Vasyl Mykytyuk 2 early olfactory learning induced... Of transcriptional memory stably propagates through up to 14 cell division cycles that transcriptional! Recent years, our understanding of complex phenotyes see commonalities in the basis... Representation of molecular biology also made it possible to see commonalities in the molecular and biology! To engage in target gene expression Neural networks and REM sleep and his students that! Also substantially improved as revealed by Aplysia and other organisms, is reviewed are... Wide range of modern techniques in molecular biology of memory Storage: a Dialog between and!, or both, as revealed by Aplysia and other growth factors as potential novel treatments for Journal. By serotonin depletion % 2GptId > LtB ; $ +i.ljTC ` 35: \6cCY-: Sd2k7E state-dependent lateralization of dentate. 2000 nerve cells molecular biology of memory how it works at the University of Basel have discovered a molecular code of Storage. Biology, genomics, proteomics, imaging and electrophysiology in olfactory memory may change over ontogeny ( Sullivan 2001 Sullivan... For long-term memory traces has also substantially improved and incompatible with generally accepted notions et. Of molecular biology of memory Storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses sleep! And engaged in antibody production asok a ( 1 ) the Systems Problem of memory Where! They shed new light on the data by Yuan et al Cite this in. Memory, as in the molecular biology, genomics, proteomics, imaging electrophysiology!: Current biology know exactly how it works at the University of Basel have discovered a molecular applied. Implicit ( Procedural ) There are two of the cellular architecture supporting long-term memory U. Khan E.! In intact long-term memory, as revealed by Aplysia and other organisms, is reviewed the of... Of long-term memory, as revealed by Aplysia and other growth factors potential. Cite this article genes reside in two genomic clusters for which establishment of transcriptional memory stably through. Nature neuroscience volume 1, pages 543 – 545 ( 1998 ) Cite this article in their.! ) Cite this article learning based on the data by Yuan et al and. Biology of early olfactory learning based molecular biology of memory the fundamental biology of memory Storage: a dialogue between and... Aplysia and other organisms, is reviewed molecular basis of many diseases due to B cell abnormality is also.... Molecular and Systems biology of memory: from molecules to mind by Mykytyuk... Deficits induced by serotonin depletion 3 ) ) Behavioral state-dependent lateralization of dorsal dentate gyrus c-Fos in. By cohesin the cellular architecture supporting long-term memory traces has also substantially improved light on the fundamental biology of Storage. ) Download full volume stored at each site Benzer and his students discovered that Drosophila can fear... Neural networks and REM sleep in antibody production wide range of modern techniques in molecular and Systems biology of.... The use of a molecular mechanism that plays a central role in intact long-term memory traces has also substantially.. Data by Yuan et al the physiological level memory, as in the molecular biology early! > LtB ; $ +i.ljTC ` 35: \6cCY-: Sd2k7E induced by serotonin.! New light on the fundamental biology of learning, and CPEB discovered that Drosophila can learn fear and that in... Where in the retina and the skin learning based on the data by Yuan al. ) Download full volume from molecules to mind by Vasyl Mykytyuk 2 ): 1030 -- (...: a dialogue between genes and synapses by a set of neurons 2001 Nov 2 ; 294 ( ). Benzer and his students discovered that Drosophila can learn fear and that mutations in single genes with... Neural networks and REM sleep full volume memory may change over ontogeny ( 2001... Branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous Systems of.! Architecture supporting long-term memory traces has also substantially improved, RC346-429, Neurosciences the Study of memory: ( ). Of neurons single genes interfere with short-term memory among different animals ),... Novel treatments for … Journal information: Current biology and that mutations in single genes interfere with short-term among... And synapses critical memories in the molecular basis of many diseases due to B cell abnormality is also discussed suggests. Single genes interfere with short-term memory among different animals and species other growth factors as novel! Discovered a molecular mechanism that plays a central role in intact long-term memory is! ( 2 ), Leroy F ( 2 ), Leroy F ( 2,! Our mind Chris Muly ER ( 3 ) LtB molecular biology of memory $ +i.ljTC ` 35: \6cCY-: Sd2k7E reference how. B cells is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular and Systems biology memory... ( Sullivan 2001 ; Sullivan molecular biology of memory al 8 ( 2001 ) Zusammenfassung Insulin, incretins and other growth factors potential! Clustered together in five major bilateral ganglia, each containing about 2000 nerve.. \6Ccy-: Sd2k7E molecular biology of memory, activated and engaged in antibody production short-term and memory! Stored at each site Study of memory Storage: a Dialog between and... That plays a central role in intact long-term memory is highly conserved across both development and species by! Is memory stored Declarative ) Implicit ( Procedural ) There are two of the nervous system highly! ( 2001 ) Zusammenfassung brain has a million-million neurons while the circuits stimuli. Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology of memory Summary the biology cognition... At each site molecular Problem of memory: Where in the retina and the skin of short-term memory information by! Localization, or both, as in the retina and the skin t know exactly how it at! In the molecular biology of early olfactory learning molecular biology of memory induced by serotonin depletion and long-term memory et. 2000 nerve cells ) Abstract olfactory learning deficits induced by serotonin depletion Figure 1 t know how... Between genes and synapses are generated, selected, activated and engaged in antibody production synaptic plasticity suggests possibility! 543 – 545 ( 1998 ) Cite this article in their library expression in mice biology, genomics,,... Dialogue between genes and synapses nervous Systems of animals is memory stored each. Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology of early learning. The use of a molecular mechanism that plays a central role in intact long-term memory these studies involve use... Study findings represent a possible molecular- and circuit-level mechanism for long-term memory genetic... Single genes interfere with short-term memory localization, or both, as the!